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What is the Data Communication Model?

In networking, we need a data communication model to transfer data from one station to another. Data cannot be transferred from one end to another without a communication model.

Therefore, the data communication model includes sender, transmitter, communication channel, receiver, and destination.

Computer Network relies on data transferring of data and receiving the data.

Data Communication Model in Networking


The source terminal or source will generate the message that needs to be transferred and the transducer will convert that message into an electrical signal or digital signal.

i.e One of the best example is the source can be a computer where a person talking on a microphone and the computer processing it and transferring to the destination end.


The transmitter won’t directly send the data to the end node or the destination. The transmitter will identify the source data and it will transform or decode the information in such a way to produce electromagnetic signals that can be transmitted into the transmission system.

One of the examples is Modem – It does modulation and demodulation –  a process of decoding and encoding.


As it is directly connected to the source to end destination. It can send the transmitted data or information to the receiving end via guided or unguided media.

Data will be transferred through electromagnetic waves. We can use various ways cables, fiber optics, radio frequencies, Wireless medium, etc…

While sending the data or information from the source to the destination there we may face noises or transmission impairments. Which can distort the data and we might not get the actual data that we are looking for.


The receiver is the device that receives the signals and amplifies them as well as removes the unwanted noise or the unwanted signals to dispatch or decode actual data and feed it to the destination node.


The end node or user will finally receive the message through the data terminal equipment stationed at the other side. Those end nodes may be Terminal, Computer, or any other medium like printer or mainframe computer, etc…

To understand this very clearly we can take the example of a public telephone network.


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