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What is Computer System? & It’s Components

The computer system is a combination of hardware, software, and liveware. Each of the integrated devices performs its own specific tasks, such as the input device will give input, the processor will process it, and the output device will produce an output.


Hardware is known as the physical parts of the computer consisting of the motherboard, processor, memory devices, expansion cards, cables, connector, and other peripherals.


Software is known as the logical part of the computer where the software will play the main role in completing the process or operations in the computer. There are various types of computers in the computer system.

  • Application Software
  • Operating Software
  • Utility Software

These all have their all preferences and work specifications. A user will normally perform the task within the software area to make things happen.

Liveware or Humanware

Means a person who can manage the instructions to the computer to perform the required tasks.

Computer System
Image: Figure of computer system and its components

A computer is a machine which does receive data from the input device and organizes them to produce output by processing it and the result will be displayed by the output unit.

The architecture of the computer system includes an Input Device, storage unit, primary memory, control unit, ALU, and Output Device.

Input Devices

Mouse: The mouse is a pointing device that helps us to navigate the part of a computer where we want to perform an action. We can perform those actions with a pointer. A mouse can only be used with a graphical user interface.

Keyboard: We provide textual data as input with a keyboard. The keyboard does have keys to react with, and the keyboard will perform further actions, such as moving an arrow downwards or controlling it.

Joystick: The joystick is originally from the field of aviation, where it refers to the control stick used by a pilot to control the flight of the plane. As such it is mainly used for interaction with computer games as well.

There are other input devices as well, like Joypad, Graphics Tablet, Scanner, Microphone, Camera, Barcode reader, etc…

Output Devices

A device that provides input to the computer and displays the output of that input is an input device. There are different types of output devices like softcopy output devices and hardcopy output devices.

The term “softcopy” refers to devices that do not have a physical form, they can only be visible or audible.

Hardcopy means the output can be in physical form and we can touch it and feel it.

Digital information is converted into a human-readable format. Monitors, projectors, headphones, speakers, printers, etc. are some output devices.

One of the major output devices is VDU (Visual Display Unit), it generally looks like a television and is an essential part of the visual output of a PC. We can see images, text, and other information are displayed on the screen as a collection of small dots or we can call them pixels.

Processing Unit

Generally processing unit is known as the brain of the computer it does include different other units ALU and Control Unit and Memory Unit. A CPU can be located on one or more microchips called integrated circuits (ICs). Semiconductor materials are used in the ICs.

Programs provide instructions and data to the CPU. The CPU then fetches the program and data from the memory and performs arithmetic and logic operations according to the instructions and stores the result.

Data, instructions, or intermediate results are stored in registers. Besides the registers, the CPU has two main components – the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) and the Control Unit (CU).

As part of a program, the ALU executes all arithmetic operations and logic operations required.

Controls the execution of sequential instructions, interprets instructions, and guides data movement through the computer’s memory.

Previously there were computer slower then now you can understand about the First Generation Computer, Second Generation Computer, Third Generation Computer and Fourth Generation Computer along with history of computer.

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