The third generation was from 1965-1971. The computers of the third generation used Integrated Circuits (ICs) in place of transistors. A single IC has many transistors, resistors, and capacitors along with the associated circuitry. The IC was invented by Jack Kilby.
An integrated circuit (IC), sometimes called a chip or microchip, is a semiconductor wafer on which thousands or millions of tiny resistors, capacitors, and transistors are fabricated. An IC can function as an amplifier, oscillator, timer, counter, computer memory, or microprocessor.
Advantages of Third Generation Computer
- Smaller in size as compared to previous generations.
- More reliable.
- Used less energy.
- Produced less heat as compared to the previous two generations of computers. (First Generation, Second Generation)
- Better speed and could calculate data in nanoseconds.
- Used fan for head discharge to prevent damage.
- Maintenance cost was low because hardware failure is rare.
- Totally general purpose.
- Could be used for high-level language.
- High storage capacity than the previous generation’s computer.
- Versatile to an extent.
- Less expensive.
- More accurate than previous.
- Used mouse and keyboard for input.
Disadvantages of Third Generation Computer
- Air conditioning was required.
- The highly sophisticated technology required for the manufacturing of IC chips.