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What is Protocol, Syntax, Semantics and Timing in Networking?

Protocol, Syntax, Semantics and Timing in Networking?


A protocol is a set of rules that govern data, communications. A protocol defines what is communicated how it is communicated, and the key elements of the protocol are Syntax, semantics, and timing. 


The term syntax refers to the structure or format of the data, meaning the order in which they are presented, for example, some protocol might expect the first 8 bits of data to be the address of the sender, the second 8 bits to be the address of the receiver, and the rest of the stream to be the message itself. 


The word semantics refers to the meaning of each section of bits. How are a particular pattern to be interpreted, and what action is to be taken based on that interpretation? For example, does an address identify the route to be taken or the final destination of the message?


The term timing refers to two characteristics: when data should be sent and how fast they can be sent. For Example, if a sender produces data at 100 Mbps but the receiver can process data at only 1 Mbps, the transmission will overload the receiver and some data will be lost.


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