The distributed database system allows applications from local and remote databases. The architecture of a system defines its structure and distributed database management systems might be implemented as homogeneous or heterogeneous.
The architecture will help to understand the system’s components and define the functions of each specified. The architecture will also focus on defining the interrelationships and interactions among the components.
Three Type Architectures in Distributed Database
- Homogeneous Distributed Database System
- Heterogeneous Distributed Database System
- Client/ Server Database Architecture
Homogeneous Distributed Database
- All sites use the same DBMS products.
- It is much easier to design and manage
- The approach provides incremental growth and allows increased performance.
Heterogeneous Distributed Database
- Sites may run different DBMS products with possibly different understanding data models.
- This occurs when a site has implemented its own database first and integration is considered later.
- The translation is required to allow for different hardware and / different DBMS.
Client-Server Database Architecture
In client-server database architecture, it will divide the functionality into two classes as in server functions and client functions.
Server functions – mainly do the data management, including query processing, optimization, transaction management, etc…
Client functions – includes the data management functions (consistency checking, transactions management, etc..) not just the user interface.
It also provides a two level arcitecture and it is more efficient in the division of work. However, it has two different types
- Multiple client/ single server
- Multiple client /multiple server.
Simple and easy example we can take in this scenerio is web hosting services and platforms.
Peer-to-peer architecture (P2P architecture) is a commonly used computer networking architecture in which each workstation, or node, has the same capabilities and responsibilities.
It is often compared and contrasted to the classic client/server architecture, in which some computers are dedicated to serving others.
Fundamental difference to peer-to-peer database management system is in the definition of the global conceptual schema.
In multi database architecture global conceptual schema represents only the collection of some of the local databases that each local DBMS want to share.
So it also has two different models, one is model with GCS and one without the GCS model.
ANSI / SPARC Architecture of DBMS
The ANSI-SPARC Architecture, where ANSI-SPARC stands for American National Standards Institute, Standards Planning And Requirements Committee, is an abstract design standard for a Database Management System, first proposed in 1975. The ANSI-SPARC model however never became a formal standard.
- ANSI/SPARC architecture is based on data.
- 3 views of data are major in ANIS and SPARC architecture i.e external view, conceptual view internal view.
- Defines a total of 43 interfaces between these views