Trends of the Hindu Population (1100 – 2024)

Hindu Population

Hinduism, one of the oldest religions in the world, has undergone significant demographic changes over the past millennium. Understanding these changes involves analyzing the population of Hindus, major events influencing these trends, and the number of conversions to Hinduism over time. This article provides an estimated overview of the Hindu population from 1100 to 2024 and examines the factors contributing to conversions to Hinduism.

Estimated Hindu Population (1100-2024)

The table below presents the estimated Hindu population over the centuries, reflecting historical context, significant events, and available demographic studies.

Year Estimated Hindu Population (millions)
1100 70
1200 75
1300 80
1400 85
1500 90
1600 100
1700 110
1800 125
1900 200
1950 300
1960 315
1970 350
1980 400
1990 650
2000 800
2010 950
2020 1100
2024 1150


  • 1100-1600: Population estimates during this period are highly speculative due to limited historical records. The numbers reflect gradual growth typical of pre-modern agrarian societies.
  • 1600-1800: Slight increase in growth rate with the Mughal Empire’s relative stability and economic prosperity in India.
  • 1800-1900: British colonial rule had mixed impacts on the population due to famines, public health initiatives, and infrastructure development.
  • 1900-1950: Significant population growth influenced by better medical care and reduced mortality rates, despite the partition of India in 1947.
  • 1950-2020: Rapid population growth due to advancements in medicine, improved living conditions, and increased birth rates.
  • 2024: Based on current growth trends, the Hindu population continues to grow, though at a slower rate compared to the late 20th century due to declining birth rates.

Estimated Number of People Following Hinduism (1100-2024)

Estimating the number of people who converted to or followed Hinduism involves considering major events and trends that influenced conversions and adherence to Hinduism.

Year Major Events and Trends Influencing Conversion
1100-1500 Limited data; minor conversions, mostly within India. Growth through natural population increase.
1500-1800 Hindu revival movements; some conversions during Mughal rule.
1800-1900 British colonial rule saw social reforms and movements like Arya Samaj promoting conversions back to Hinduism (Shuddhi).
1900-1950 Continued influence of reform movements; some conversions from tribal and other indigenous religions.
1950-2020 Post-independence India saw continued efforts from organizations like the Arya Samaj and others to convert back to Hinduism. Increase in adherents due to demographic growth.
2024 Modern global diaspora; minor conversions globally due to cultural and spiritual appeal of Hinduism.
Year Estimated Converts (millions)
1100 Very minimal conversions
1200 0.1
1300 0.2
1400 0.3
1500 0.4
1600 0.5
1700 0.7
1800 1.0
1900 5.0
1950 15.0
1960 18.0
1970 22.0
1980 30.0
1990 50.0
2000 70.0
2010 85.0
2020 100.0
2024 110.0


  • 1100-1500: Conversions were minimal due to the relative stability of religious identities and limited proselytizing efforts.
  • 1500-1800: Some revival movements and conversions during the Mughal Empire period.
  • 1800-1900: Movements like Arya Samaj’s Shuddhi campaign aimed to bring back converts from other religions.
  • 1900-1950: Social and religious reform movements continued, contributing to an increase in followers.
  • 1950-2020: Post-independence saw continued efforts to convert back to Hinduism and a natural increase in followers due to population growth.
  • 2024: The modern era has seen minor conversions globally due to the cultural and spiritual appeal of Hinduism.

Other Relevant Data

  • Partition of India (1947): This significant event resulted in large-scale migrations and affected the demographic composition of Hindus, especially in the newly formed countries of India and Pakistan.
  • Global Hindu Diaspora: The spread of Hinduism beyond the Indian subcontinent, particularly in countries like the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Australia, has influenced the global Hindu population. The number of Hindus in these regions has grown due to migration and some conversions.
  • Modern Revival Movements: Organizations such as the Arya Samaj, ISKCON (International Society for Krishna Consciousness), and other spiritual movements have played roles in promoting Hinduism globally and attracting followers.


The Hindu population has seen significant changes over the last millennium, influenced by historical events, social reforms, and demographic trends. From a population of approximately 70 million in 1100, the number of Hindus has grown to an estimated 1.15 billion in 2024. Conversions to Hinduism have also played a role, particularly during periods of social and religious reform. This overview provides a glimpse into the dynamic history of Hinduism and its adherents.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *